Batteries | adaptive state-of-charge determination

H.J. Bergveld, D. Danilov, P.H.L. Notten, V. Pop, P.P.L. Regtien

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


This article gives an overview of available state-of-charge (SoC)-indication methodologies and highlights many related practical implementation issues. First of all, a brief history of the developments in SoC indication is given. The lithium-ion battery technology is briefly discussed as illustration, because battery behavior needs to be understood and taken into account properly to achieve a desired level of accuracy. The focus is on describing the background of behavior that is important to be addressed by the SoC-indication system, such as aging processes. The available SoC-indication methods are classified and advantages and disadvantages are listed. Some examples of practical implementations are given, including important issues to address. As an illustration, a state-of-the-art SoC-indication system for lithium-ion batteries is described at the end of the article.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources
PublisherAgon Elsevier
Number of pages19
ISBN (Print)9780444527455
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009


  • Adaptive system
  • Battery aging
  • EMF
  • Li-ion batteries
  • State-of-charge
  • State-of-health


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