Flexibility can be used to mitigate distribution network overloading. Distribution system operators (DSOs) can obtain this flexibility from market parties connected to the distribution network. After flexibility has been delivered to the DSO, it needs to be settled. This is typically done by comparing load measurements with a baseline. This baseline describes an asset's power profile in case no flexibility would have been delivered. Until recently, baselining research mainly focused on large-scale, predictable and controllable assets. The flexibility used by DSOs however typically comes from small-scale, less predictable and less controllable assets. This paper addresses the baselining problem for photo-voltaic systems. Three existing baselining methods are selected based on their simplicity and transparency and their limitations with respect to application towards photo-voltaic systems are evaluated. Based on this, a proof-of-concept for a new, fourth method is provided. It overcomes some of the limitations of the three existing ones, while still ensuring simplicity and transparency in order to promote market acceptance and practical applicability. All four methods are subjected to two different curtailment strategies: curtailing all peaks above a threshold and curtailing based on a day-ahead flexibility request. Using weather data from three summer weeks in 2019, it is shown that the newly developed method is able to provide a more accurate baseline than the existing methods.
- Energy markets
- Local flexibility market