Automated Lane Changing with a Controlled Steering-Wheel Feedback Torque for Low Lateral Acceleration Purposes

Jan Loof (Corresponding author), Igo Besselink, Henk Nijmeijer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


To bridge the gap between autonomous and normal steering during low lateral acceleration maneuvers, a steering-wheel torque controller is developed. It consists of three controllers in series, a high-gain feedback steering-wheel torque controller, a nonlinear steering-angle controller, and a linear yaw-rate controller. A validated two degrees of freedom steering-system model, in combination with a single-track vehicle model, is used to determine the controller parameters. Driving tests with different drivers have been executed to find a comfortable steering-wheel torque/angle relation. This relation is maintained throughout the lane change by specifying the steering-wheel torque as a function of the steering-wheel angle tracking error. Experiments show promising results regarding the driver/vehicle interaction, but also show that a system to detect the lanes and the vehicle position on the road is required for further improvement.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8818350
Pages (from-to)578-587
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) under Grant 12831.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 IEEE.


  • autonomous driving
  • Electric power-steering
  • lane change
  • steering-system model
  • steering-wheel feedback torque
  • yaw-rate control


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