In nature, dynamic processes are ubiquitous and often characterized by adaptive, transient behavior. Herein, we present the development of a transient bowl-shaped nanoreactor system, or stomatocyte, the properties of which are mediated by molecular interactions. In a stepwise fashion, we couple motility to a dynamic process, which is maintained by transient events; namely, binding and unbinding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The surface of the nanosystem is decorated with polylysine (PLL), and regulation is achieved by addition of ATP. The dynamic interaction between PLL and ATP leads to an increase in the hydrophobicity of the PLL–ATP complex and subsequently to a collapse of the polymer; this causes a narrowing of the opening of the stomatocytes. The presence of the apyrase, which hydrolyzes ATP, leads to a decrease of the ATP concentration, decomplexation of PLL, and reopening of the stomatocyte. The competition between ATP input and consumption gives rise to a transient state that is controlled by the out-of-equilibrium process.
Bibliographical noteSpecial Issue: Science Forum.
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Hot Topic: Robotics
- out-of-equilibrium systems