Atmospheric pressure deposition of SnO2 and ZnO

Joop van Deelen, Bas Kniknie, Frank Grob, Ioanna Volintiru, Fred Roozeboom, Paul Poodt, Andrea Illiberi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coated glass is widely used in thin film PV. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) is a highly cost effective method of deposition and apart from metal precursor and oxygen precursor, other additives can improve the layer quality. In this contribution, we present an overview of the latest results on SnO2 and ZnO work. First, the beneficial effect of methanol addition is discussed. By adding methanol during the SnO2 deposition, the conductivity increased up to ten times, with remarkably high mobility values of up to 55 cm2/Vs. The films are already very conductive at a thickness below 10 nm. This is highly beneficial to applications with strict requirements in terms of film transparency. For ZnO:Al the APCVD process was developed with a deposition rate of 14 nm/s for one injector and resistivity values down to 0.6 mΩ cm. Low temperature APCVD ZnO was achieved by introducing remote plasma in the system. Deposition rate of 7 nm/s and resistivities of 2 mΩ cm were obtained. For spatial ALD, growth rates of ZnO were up to 1 nm/s and resistivities were of the order of 4 mΩ cm.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProgram - 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2012
Number of pages4
Publication statusPublished - 26 Nov 2012
Event38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 2012) - Austin Convention Center, Austin, United States
Duration: 3 Jun 20128 Jun 2012
Conference number: 38


Conference38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 2012)
Abbreviated titlePVSC 2012
Country/TerritoryUnited States
Internet address


  • CVD
  • tinoxide
  • transparent conductive oxides
  • transparent conductors
  • zincoxide


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