Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

J.F. Bakker, M.M. Paulides, A. Christ, N. Kuster, G.C. van Rhoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR(wb)) and 58% (SAR(10g)) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR(wb) is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR(10g) values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3115-3130
Number of pages16
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Volume55
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jun 2010
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Corrigendum is added to the pdf of the article.

Keywords

  • Absorption
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Computer Simulation
  • Electromagnetic Fields
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
  • Male
  • Models, Anatomic
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Radiation Protection/methods
  • Reference Standards

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