Modern electrical infrastructure is being challenged by increasing uncertainty from the introduction of renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER). To cope with the challenges such technologies introduce, a considerable amount of attention has recently been given to the concept of “demand flexibility.” It is presented as an alternative to complement the current control and operation methodologies of the power grid, and to assist the penetration process of new technologies. Conventionally, flexibility is harnessed from power generation units and used by SOs to maintain the balance between supply and demand of the power system. However, as the penetration of stochastic generation and new forms of demand increase, this capability of conventional generation units might not be sufficient to cope with increasing uncertainty in both supply and demand. In response, throughout the literature, the necessity for a new flexibility source is highlighted. Demand side becomes active component in the control and operation of the power system, with the advances in ICT and computational intelligence in a so called cyber-physical social system (CPSS). The flexibility offered by the end-users, through for instance building energy management systems (BEMS), has the potential to help not only resolve network and system problems, but also accommodate a higher amount of renewables, increase asset utilization, and reduce peak demand. Yet, this is not a straightforward transition toward a smart energy system or smart grid (SG). Advanced energy management systems are required to manage the flexible demand while integrating emerging technologies. This chapter introduces a SG-BEMS interoperation framework and demonstrates the capabilities and benefits of multi-agent systems (MASs) in enabling the correct operation of the emerging SG, while unlocking the flexibility potential of the built environment.
|Title of host publication||Cyber-Physical-Social Systems and Constructs in Electric Power Engineering|
|Editors||S. Suryanarayanan, R. Roche, T.M. Hansen|
|Place of Publication||London|
|Publisher||Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|