ApEn: A Stress-Aware Pen for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Jing Li, Emilia I. Barakova, Jun Hu, Wouter Staal, Martine van Dongen-Boomsma

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Children with Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience high levels of anxiety and stress. Many children with ASD have difficulty in being aware of their stress and communicating distress to family and caregivers. Stress detection and regulation are vital for their mental well-being. This paper presents a stress-aware pen (ApEn) that detects real-time stress-related behaviors and interacts with users with vibrotactile and light as a feedback indication of interpreted stress levels. ApEn is a context-aware tool for collecting behavioral data related to the expression of stress and can increase users’ stress awareness. A pilot test was conducted with typical developed children to investigate how to detect stress in their daily environment. The pilot test results indicate that ApEn is a promising tool for detecting stress-related behaviors and can attend the user about the detected stress through designed sensory feedback.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationArtificial Intelligence in Neuroscience
Subtitle of host publicationAffective Analysis and Health Applications - 9th International Work-Conference on the Interplay Between Natural and Artificial Computation, IWINAC 2022, Proceedings
EditorsJosé Manuel Ferrández Vicente, José Ramón Álvarez-Sánchez, Félix de la Paz López, Hojjat Adeli
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9783031062414
Publication statusPublished - 24 May 2022

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume13258 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


  • Children with ASD
  • Smart everyday objects
  • Stress detection


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