Antifouling and fouling-release performance of photo-embossed fluorogel elastomers

Sander Kommeren, Andrew J. Guerin, Marie L. Dale, James Ferguson, Graeme Lyall, Kevin J. Reynolds, Anthony S. Clare, Cees W.M. Bastiaansen, Timothy Sullivan (Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
56 Downloads (Pure)


Oil-infused 'slippery' polymer surfaces and engineered surface textures have been separately shown to reduce settlement or adhesion strength of marine biofouling organisms. Here, we combine these two approaches in fluorogel surfaces infused with perfluorinated oils, via a facile photo-embossing method that allows the generation of a micro-scale surface relief structure while retaining the properties of lubricant-infused materials. Testing of these surfaces against a range of marine fouling challenges in laboratory assays demonstrated that when the volume percentage of perfluorinated oil was high, adhesion strengths of attached barnacles and biofilms were low. However, diatoms adhered strongly to test surfaces, highlighting the need to explore different combinations of polymer and oil for such surfaces. Furthermore, the tested surface structures increased settlement and adhesion in the assays, demonstrating the need to optimize any surface structure for specific applications. Nevertheless, the results show the feasibility of combining multiple approaches to create future antifouling technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number419
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 14 Nov 2019


  • Barnacle fouling
  • Diatom fouling
  • Fluoropolymers
  • Fouling-release
  • Surface topography


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