The androgen receptor (AR) is commonly known as a key transcription factor in prostate cancer development, progression and therapy resistance. Genome-wide chromatin association studies revealed that transcriptional regulation by AR mainly depends on binding to distal regulatory enhancer elements that control gene expression through chromatin looping to gene promoters. Changes in the chromatin epigenetic landscape and DNA sequence can locally alter AR-DNA-binding capacity and consequently impact transcriptional output and disease outcome. The vast majority of reports describing AR chromatin interactions have been limited to cell lines, identifying numerous other factors and interacting transcription factors that impact AR chromatin interactions. Do these factors also impact AR cistromics - the genome-wide chromatin-binding landscape of AR - in vivo? Recent technological advances now enable researchers to identify AR chromatin-binding sites and their target genes in human specimens. In this review, we provide an overview of the different factors that influence AR chromatin binding in prostate cancer specimens, which is complemented with knowledge from cell line studies. Finally, we discuss novel perspectives on studying AR cistromics in clinical samples.
- androgen receptor
- prostate cancer