Analyzing heterogeneity in passenger satisfaction, loyalty, and complaints with air-rail integrated services

Yalong Yuan, Min Yang (Corresponding author), Tao Feng, Soora Rasouli, Xinpei Ruan, Xinyu Wang, Yu Li

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15 Citations (Scopus)
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To increase the understanding of passenger choice of air-rail integrated services (ARIS), the present paper a) analyzes the profile of intermodal passengers by classifying them based on their socioeconomic and travel characteristics and (b) uncovers any heterogeneity in passenger satisfaction with ARIS among different passenger groups. Through collecting 1,345 passenger satisfaction
questionnaires about ARIS, surveyed in Shijiazhuang, China, we first apply latent class clustering to classify passengers into three groups. Then, the key factors affecting passenger satisfaction and its subsequent effect on loyalty and complaints are identified using a partial least squares structural equation model. Finally, path heterogeneities in different passenger groups are explored using a multi-group analysis. The results show that the three passenger groups attach
similar importance to ticket services, reliability, accessibility and comfort, while some noticeable differences in perception are identified in personalized services, information services, and connectivity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102950
Number of pages20
JournalTransportation Research. Part D: Transport and Environment
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • Passenger satisfaction
  • Passenger loyalty
  • Air-rail integrated services
  • Latent class clustering
  • Multi-group analysis
  • Heterogeneity


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