An investigation of polyamides based on isoidide-2,5-dimethyleneamine as a green rigid building block with enhanced reactivity

J. Wu, L. Jasinska, D. Dudenko, A.J. Rozanski, M.R. Hansen, D.S. Es, van, C.E. Koning

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    34 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Novel, semicrystalline polyamides and copolyamides were synthesized from a new carbohydrate-based diamine, namely isoidide-2,5-dimethyleneamine (IIDMA). In combination with 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (1,6-HDA) as well as the biobased sebacic acid (SA) or brassylic acid (BrA), the desired copolyamides were obtained via melt polymerization of the nylon salts followed by a solid-state polycondensation (SSPC) process. Depending on the chemical compositions, the number average molecular weights (Mn) of the polyamides were in the range of 4000–49000 g/mol. With increasing IIDMA content in the synthesized copolyamides, their corresponding glass transition temperatures (Tg) increased from 50 °C to approximately 60–67 °C while the melting temperatures (Tm) decreased from 220 to 160 °C. The chemical structures of the polyamides were analyzed by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analyses revealed the semicrystalline character of these novel copolyamides. Variable-temperature (VT) 13C{1H} cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR and FT-IR techniques were employed to study the crystal structures as well as the distribution of IIDMA moieties over the crystalline and amorphous phases of the copolyamides. The performed ab initio calculations reveal that the stability of the IIDMA moieties is due to a pronounced "boat" conformation of the bicyclic rings. The incorporation of methylene segments in between the isohexide group and the amide groups enables the hydrogen bonds formation and organization of the polymer chain fragments. Given the sufficiently high Tm values (200 °C) of the copolyamides containing less than 50% of IIDMA, these biobased semicrystalline copolyamides can be useful for engineering plastic applications.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)9333-9346
    Number of pages14
    JournalMacromolecules
    Volume45
    Issue number23
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2012

    Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'An investigation of polyamides based on isoidide-2,5-dimethyleneamine as a green rigid building block with enhanced reactivity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this