An integrated modeling framework for environmentally efficient car ownership and trip balance

T. Feng, Junyi Zhang, Akimasa Fujiiwara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
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Urban transport emissions generated by automobile trips are greatly responsible for atmospheric pollution in both developed and developing countries. To match the long-term target of sustainable development, it seems to be important to specify the feasible level of car ownership and travel demand from environmental considerations. This research intends to propose an integrated modeling framework for optimal construction of a comprehensive transportation system by taking into consideration environmental constraints. The modeling system is actually a combination of multiple essential models and illustrated by using a bi-level programming approach. In the upper level, the maximization of both total car ownership and total number of trips by private and public travel modes is set as the objective function and as the constraints, the total emission levels at all the zones are set to not exceed the relating environmental capacities. Maximizing the total trips by private and public travel modes allows policy makers to take into account trip balance to meet both the mobility levels required by travelers and the environmentally friendly transportation system goals. The lower level problem is a combined trip distribution and assignment model incorporating traveler's route choice behavior. A logit-type aggregate modal split model is established to connect the two level problems. In terms of the solution method for the integrated model, a genetic algorithm is applied. A case study is conducted using road network data and person-trip (PT) data collected in Dalian city, China. The analysis results showed that the amount of environmentally efficient car ownership and number of trips by different travel modes could be obtained simultaneously when considering the zonal control of environmental capacity within the framework of the proposed integrated model. The observed car ownership in zones could be increased or decreased towards the macroscopic optimization objective with zonal limit of emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-108
Number of pages14
JournalIATSS Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Car ownership
  • Integrated model
  • Environmental capacity
  • Bi-level programming
  • Trip balance
  • Genetic algorithm


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