Alternative technology concepts for low-cost and high-speed 2D and 3D interconnect manufacturing

F. Roozeboom, M. Smets, B. Kniknie, M. Hoppenbrouwers, G. Dingemans, W. Keuning, W.M.M. Kessels, Ralph Pohl, A.J. Huis In't Veld

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperAcademic

1 Citation (Scopus)


The current industrial process of choice for Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of 3D features, e.g. Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs), Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), etc., is the Bosch process, which uses alternative SF 6 etch cycles and C4F8-based sidewall passivation cycles in a time-sequenced mode. An alternative, potentially faster and more accurate process is to have wafers pass under spatially-divided reaction zones, which are individually separated by so-called N2-gas bearings 'curtains' of heights down to 10-20 μm. In addition, the feature sidewalls can be protected by replacing the C4F8-based sidewall passivation cycles by cycles forming chemisorbed and highly uniform passivation layers of A12O3 or SiO2 deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), also in a spatially-divided mode. ALD is performed either in thermal mode, or plasma-assisted mode in order to achieve near room-temperature processing. For metal filling of 3D-etched TSVs, or for deposition of 2D metal conductor lines one can use Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) of metals. LIFT is a maskless, 'solvent'-free deposition method, utilizing different types of pulsed lasers to deposit thin material (e.g. Cu, Au, Al, Cr) layers with um-range resolution from a transparent carrier (ribbon) onto a close-by acceptor substrate. It is a dry, single-step, room temperature process in air, suitable for different types of interconnect fabrication, e.g. TSV filling and redistribution layers (RDL), without the use of wet chemistry.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013
Event46th Annual IMAPS International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS 2013) - Orlando, FL, United States
Duration: 30 Sept 20133 Oct 2013
Conference number: 46


Conference46th Annual IMAPS International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS 2013)
Abbreviated titleIMAPS 2013
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityOrlando, FL


  • 3D interconnect
  • ALD oxide passivation
  • Laser-Induced Forward Transfer
  • Redistribution layers
  • Spatially-divided Deep Reactive Ion Etching
  • TSV drilling and filling


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