Agile green process design for the intensified Kolbe-Schmitt synthesis by accompanying (simplified) life cycle assessment

S. Kressirer, D. Kralisch, A. Stark, U. Krtschil, V. Hessel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

In order to investigate the potential for process intensification, various reaction conditions were applied to the Kolbe–Schmitt synthesis starting from resorcinol. Different CO2 precursors such as aqueous potassium hydrogencarbonate, hydrogencarbonate-based ionic liquids, DIMCARB, or sc-CO2, the application of microwave irradiation for fast volumetric heating of the reaction mixture, and the effect of harsh reaction conditions were investigated. The experiments, carried out in conventional batch-wise as well as in continuously operated microstructured reactors, aimed at the development of an environmentally benign process for the preparation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. To provide decision support toward a green process design, a research-accompanying simplified life cycle assessment (SLCA) was performed throughout the whole investigation. Following this approach, it was found that convective heating methods such as oil bath or electrical heating were more beneficial than the application of microwave irradiation. Furthermore, the consideration of workup procedures was crucial for a holistic view on the environmental burdens.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5362-5371
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume47
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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