Agent-based modelling of charging behaviour of electric vehicle drivers

Mart van der Kam (Corresponding author), Annemijn Peters, Wilfried G.J.H.M. van Sark, Floor Alkemade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)
223 Downloads (Pure)


The combination of electric vehicles (EVs) and intermittent renewable energy sources has received increasing attention over the last few years. Not only does charging electric vehicles with renewable energy realize their true potential as a clean mode of transport, charging electric vehicles at times of peaks in renewable energy production can help large scale integration of renewable energy in the existing energy infrastructure. We present an agent-based model that investigates the potential contribution of this combination. More specifically, we investigate the potential effects of different kinds of policy interventions on aggregate EV charging patterns. The policy interventions include financial incentives, automated smart charging, information campaigns and social charging. We investigate how well the resulting charging patterns are aligned with renewable energy production and how much they affect user satisfaction of EV drivers. Where possible, we integrate empirical data in our model, to ensure realistic scenarios. We use recent theory from environmental psychology to determine agent behaviour, contrary to earlier simulation models, which have focused only on technical and financial considerations. Based on our simulation results, we articulate some policy recommendations. Furthermore, we point to future research directions for environmental psychology scholars and modelers who want to use theory to inform simulation models of energy systems.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2019


  • Electric Vehicles
  • Intermittent Renewables
  • Smart Charging
  • Environmental Self-Identity
  • Range Anxiety
  • Agent-Based Model


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