In this paper, we present an optimal-control-based method for ageing-aware charging. A surrogate modeling approach is used to approximate ageing-related Doyle-Fuller-Newman (DFN) model states, where the surrogate model is a combination of a black-box finite-dimensional linear-time-invariant model and a static nonlinear model that is a function of state-of-charge. We formulate the optimal-control problem as minimizing the side reactions for a given charging time and subject to several ageing-related constraints that are commonly used in literature. We will show that the ageing-related DFN model states can be well approximated by the proposed surrogate model. Furthermore, we will show that with the surrogate modeling approach, even in an open-loop execution of the optimal-control-based method, the considered constraints are only marginally violated when applied to the DFN model. Finally, we will compare the Pareto front achieved with the proposed optimal-control-based method with the Pareto fronts achieved with various multi-stage charging protocols. Here, we will show that the proposed optimal-control-based method achieves a significantly improved Pareto front over the multi-stage charging protocols.
|Title of host publication||American Control Conference|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 21 Apr 2021|
|Event||2021 American Control Conference - New Orleans, United States|
Duration: 26 May 2021 → 28 May 2021
|Conference||2021 American Control Conference|
|Abbreviated title||ACC 2021|
|Period||26/05/21 → 28/05/21|