The adsorption and dissociation of CO have been calculated on the (100) surfaces of the body-centered cubic transition metals Fe, Mo, Cr, and W and the alloys Fe3Mo and Fe3Cr using density functional theory for two CO coverages, 0.25 and 0.5 ML. A complete analysis of the vibrational frequencies was performed to check whether the calculated structures are stable geometries or transition-state structures. For coverages up to 0.25 ML, carbon monoxide adsorbs molecularly onto all four metals at fourfold hollow sites with tilting angles with respect to the surface normal of 47°, 57°, 57°, and 58° and adsorption energies of -1.53, -2.64, -3.03, and -3.01 eV for Fe, Mo, Cr, and W, respectively. The calculated CO stretching frequencies at this coverage are 1211, 1062, 1037, and 926 cm-1. At higher coverages, CO adsorption does not exhibit significant changes in both adsorption energy and tilting angle on all four metals but leads to blue shifts of the CO frequency for Fe and Cr and red shifts for Mo and W. Furthermore, scaling relations apply to a bent CO species at a surface coverage of 0.25 ML of CO on all four transition metals as well as the metal alloys Fe3Mo and Fe3Cr, in the sense that the heat of adsorption of CO and the activation energy of CO dissociation scale linearly with the heat of adsorption of the carbon as well as both dissociation products. © 2009 American Chemical Society.