Kidney stones are a common problem in the Netherlands. The incidence of urolithiasis amounts to approximately 2 per 1,000 patients per year. The highest incidence is seen in people aged 20 to 40 years with a male/female ratio of 2/1. The prevalence of urolithiasis in the Netherlands may be estimated at 5,5%. Not every kidney or ureteral stone needs active treatment. Three groups of treatment options for urolithiasis exist in addition to drug therapy: the extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWL), the ureteroscopy (URS) and the percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL). Considering the anatomy, the location of the stone, the stone load, the costs, the expected stone free rate (SFR) and the complication rate of each patient, the most appropriate treatment modality must be selected. Kidney stones display lower SFR than ureteral stones. With the modernization of the flexible scopes, the thinner working shafts and the improved minimally invasive lasers, URS is preferred above PNL.