Acoustic characterization of tissue-mimicking materials for ultrasound perfusion imaging research

Peiran Chen (Corresponding author), Andreas M.A.O. Pollet, Anastasiia Panfilova, Meiyi Zhou, Simona Turco, Jaap M.J. den Toonder, Massimo Mischi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
236 Downloads (Pure)


Materials with well-characterized acoustic properties are of great interest for the development of tissue-mimicking phantoms with designed (micro)vasculature networks. These represent a useful means for controlled in-vitro experiments to validate perfusion imaging methods such as Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. In this work, acoustic properties of seven tissue-mimicking phantom materials at different concentrations of their compounds and five phantom case materials are characterized and compared at room temperature. The goal of this research is to determine the most suitable phantom and case material for ultrasound perfusion imaging experiments. The measurements show a wide range in speed of sound varying from 1057 to 1616 m/s, acoustic impedance varying from 1.09 to 1.71 × 106 kg/m2s, and attenuation coefficients varying from 0.1 to 22.18 dB/cm at frequencies varying from 1 MHz to 6 MHz for different phantom materials. The nonlinearity parameter B/A varies from 6.1 to 12.3 for most phantom materials. This work also reports the speed of sound, acoustic impedance and attenuation coefficient for case materials. According to our results, polyacrylamide (PAA) and polymethylpentene (TPX) are the optimal materials for phantoms and their cases, respectively. To demonstrate the performance of the optimal materials, we performed power Doppler ultrasound imaging of a perfusable phantom, and CEUS imaging of that phantom and a perfusion system. The obtained results can assist researchers in the selection of the most suited materials for in-vitro studies with ultrasound imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-142
Number of pages19
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • acoustic properties
  • case materials
  • perfusable phantoms
  • tissue-mimicking materials
  • ultrasound perfusion imaging


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