Accurate Gain Measurement Technique for Limited Antenna Separations

A.J. van den Biggelaar (Corresponding author), Sander J. Geluk, Benjamin F. Jamroz, D.F. Williams, A.B. Smolders, Ulf Johannsen, L.A. Bronckers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
258 Downloads (Pure)


The Friis equation is often used to determine the gain of antennas but assumes that far-field conditions are met. For limited antenna separations on the order of the Fraunhofer distance, its use requires a precise estimate of the amplitude centers of the antennas. Using a new antenna gain measurement technique, it is shown that the amplitude center can be very well estimated and that the measurement results can be used to confirm that far-field conditions are met. Moreover, reflections caused by scatterers are averaged since multiple measurements are performed. The presented method is particularly useful for anechoic chambers that are limited in size, such as small anechoic chambers for the characterization of, for instance, 5G millimeter-wave phased arrays.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9395383
Pages (from-to)6772-6782
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • Antenna measurements
  • Gain measurement
  • Measurement errors


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