A nonequilibrium model is developed for the prediction of two-dimensional flow, electron and heavy particle temperatures, and number density distributions in cascaded arcs of monatomic gases. The system of strongly coupled elliptic partial differential equations describing plasma flow is solved by a numerical method based on a control volume with a nonstaggered numerical grid. The model is applied for the computation of both stagnation and flowing argon arc plasmas. The results show that the plasma in stagnation arcs is nearly in local thermal equilibrium (LTE), except very close to the wall, whereas fast flowing arc plasmas exhibit a significant degree of nonequilibrium, both close to the wall and in the inlet region. The results of the calculations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, both for the cases of stagnation and flowing argon cascaded arc plasmas.
Beulens, J. J., Milojevic, D., Schram, D. C., & Vallinga, P. M. (1991). A two-dimensional nonequilibrium model of cascaded arc plasma flows. Physics of Fluids B, Plasma Physics, 3(9), 2548-2557. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.859967