A review on various temperature-indication methods for Li-ion batteries

L.H.J. Raijmakers, D.L. Danilov, R.A. Eichel, P.H.L. Notten (Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

180 Citations (Scopus)
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Temperature measurements of Li-ion batteries are important for assisting Battery Management Systems in controlling highly relevant states, such as State-of-Charge and State-of-Health. In addition, temperature measurements are essential to prevent dangerous situations and to maximize the performance and cycle life of batteries. However, due to thermal gradients, which might quickly develop during operation, fast and accurate temperature measurements can be rather challenging. For a proper selection of the temperature measurement method, aspects such as measurement range, accuracy, resolution, and costs of the method are important. After providing a brief overview of the working principle of Li-ion batteries, including the heat generation principles and possible consequences, this review gives a comprehensive overview of various temperature measurement methods that can be used for temperature indication of Li-ion batteries. At present, traditional temperature measurement methods, such as thermistors and thermocouples, are extensively used. Several recently introduced methods, such as impedance-based temperature indication and fiber Bragg-grating techniques, are under investigation in order to determine if those are suitable for large-scale introduction in sophisticated battery-powered applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)918-945
Number of pages28
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2019


  • Li-ion batteries
  • Temperature distribution
  • Temperature measurement methods
  • Temperature sensors
  • Thermal battery management


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