A review on B/A measurement methods with a clinical perspective

Anastasiia Panfilova (Corresponding author), Ruud J.G. van Sloun, Hessel Wijkstra, Oleg A. Sapozhnikov, Massimo Mischi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
57 Downloads (Pure)


The nonlinear parameter of ultrasound B/A has shown to be a useful diagnostic parameter, reflecting medium content, structure, and temperature. Despite its recognized values, B/A is not yet used as a diagnostic tool in the clinic due to the limitations of current measurement and imaging techniques. This review presents an extensive and comprehensive overview of the techniques developed for B/A measurement of liquid and liquid-like media (e.g., tissue), identifying the methods that are most promising from a clinical perspective. This work summarizes the progress made in the field and the typical challenges on the way to B/A estimation. Limitations and problems with the current techniques are identified, suggesting directions that may lead to further improvement. Since the basic theory of the physics behind the measurement strategies is presented, it is also suited for a reader who is new to nonlinear ultrasound.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2200-2237
Number of pages38
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the eMTIC collaboration and in part by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF) under Grant No. 19-12-00148 (O.A.S.).


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