A review of the integrated design and control of electrified vehicles

Caiyang Wei, Theo Hofman, Esin Ilhan Caarls, Rokus van Iperen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


From a control perspective, the energy management system and the thermal management system of an electrified vehicle are often developed separately, which may not yield the optimal solution. Moreover, an optimal system design requires concurrent plant (topology and size) and controller optimization, which should apply to both energy and thermal domains. This paper originally provides a comprehensive analysis of design and control optimization layers to reveal the interconnections between them and how they influence the optimality of an electrified vehicle design considering both energy and thermal domains. It was found that energy and cost savings can be achieved by integrating these optimization layers, and the energy and thermal domains with four coordination schemes, namely, sequential, iterative, nested and simultaneous. There is a trade-off between optimality, causality, complexity and computational time. Additionally, future research directions in terms of reducing energy consumption and system costs of electrified vehicles are identified herein, such as using integrated design and control methods, employing electrified actuators, exchanging heat between powertrain components and utilizing waste heat recovery systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5454
Number of pages31
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2020


  • Component sizing
  • Electrified vehicle
  • Energy management
  • Optimization-based control
  • Rule-based control
  • Thermal management
  • Topology optimization


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