A remotely steered millimetre wave launcher for electron cyclotron heating and current drive on ITER

W.A. Bongers, M.F. Graswinckel, A.P.H. Goede, W. Kasparek, I. Danilov, A.F. Curto, M.R. Baar, de, M.A. Berg, van den, A.J.H. Donné, B.S.Q. Elzendoorn, R. Heidinger, P. Ivanov, O.G. Kruijt, B. Lamers, A. Meier, B. Piosczyk, B. Plaum, D.M.S. Ronden, D.J. Thoen, M. SchmidA.G.A. Verhoeven

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Abstract

High-power millimetre wave beams employed on ITER for heating and current drive at the 170 GHz electron cyclotron resonance frequency require agile steering and tight focusing of the beams to suppress neoclassical tearing modes. This paper presents experimental validation of the remote steering (RS) concept of the ITER upper port millimetre wave beam launcher. Remote steering at the entrance of the upper port launcher rather than at the plasma side offers advantages in reliability and maintenance of the mechanically vulnerable steering system. A one-to-one scale mock-up consisting of a transmission line, mitre bends, remote steering unit, vacuum window, square corrugated waveguide and front mirror simulates the ITER launcher design configuration. Validation is based on low-power heterodyne measurements of the complex amplitude and phase distribution of the steered Gaussian beam. High-power (400 kW) short pulse (10 ms) operation under vacuum, diagnosed by calorimetry and thermography of the near- and far-field beam patterns, confirms high-power operation, but shows increased power loss attributed to deteriorating input beam quality compared with low-power operation. Polarization measurements show little variation with steering, which is important for effective current drive requiring elliptical polarization for O-mode excitation. Results show that a RS range of up to -12° to +12° can be achieved with acceptable beam quality. These measurements confirm the back-up design of the ITER ECRH&CD launcher with future application for DEMO.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-86
Number of pages18
JournalFusion Engineering and Design
Volume85
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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    Bongers, W. A., Graswinckel, M. F., Goede, A. P. H., Kasparek, W., Danilov, I., Curto, A. F., ... Verhoeven, A. G. A. (2010). A remotely steered millimetre wave launcher for electron cyclotron heating and current drive on ITER. Fusion Engineering and Design, 85(1), 69-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2009.07.001