A real-time height measurement and feedback system for 3D concrete printing

R.J.M. Wolfs, F.P. Bos, E.C.F. van Strien, T.A.M. Salet

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Recent years have seen a rapid growth of additive manufacturing methods for concrete construction. Generally, these methods are based on a linear sequence of design → print path definition → actual printer actions in a print environment. However, printing experiments show that a large number of parameters influence the printing process. Not all of these can be predicted accurate on forehand. Therefore, a method is introduced that allows real-time adjustment of the print process. As a proof-of-concept, a measurement system for the nozzle height has been developed and tested. Because this variable relates to machine properties, environmental conditions as well as material behaviour, it is a crucial parameter to control. In two case study prints, the effectiveness of the device was shown. In one study, the printer could follow a range of irregular curves in the print bed, whereas only a simple flat rectangular print path had been programmed. In the other, it was shown the print path could be adjusted to vertical deformation of the previous layers of printed filament in a tubular object of several dozen layers. Thus, premature failure through irregular loading of the object during printing was avoided. Further expansion of the use of real-time measurement devices may be anticipated in the future. Besides more advanced geometrical measuring, chemical and physical conditions such as concrete temperature (both before and after deposition), surface wetness, and environment humidity, can be recorded. Combined with the machine action log, this should result in a detailed set of as-built data of the printed object, allowing e.g. for a geometrical clash control with the design as well as other quality controls.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHigh Tech Concrete: where technology and engineering meet
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, held in Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 12–14, 2017
EditorsD.A. Hordijk, M. Luković
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer
Pages2474-2483
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-59471-2
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-59470-5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Event2017 fib Symposium, June 12–14, 2017, Maastricht, The Netherlands - Maastricht, Netherlands
Duration: 12 Jun 201714 Jun 2017
https://fibsymposium2017.com/

Conference

Conference2017 fib Symposium, June 12–14, 2017, Maastricht, The Netherlands
CountryNetherlands
CityMaastricht
Period12/06/1714/06/17
Internet address

Fingerprint

Time measurement
Printing
Concretes
Feedback
3D printers
Concrete construction
Quality control
Nozzles
Atmospheric humidity
Experiments
Temperature

Cite this

Wolfs, R. J. M., Bos, F. P., van Strien, E. C. F., & Salet, T. A. M. (2017). A real-time height measurement and feedback system for 3D concrete printing. In D. A. Hordijk, & M. Luković (Eds.), High Tech Concrete: where technology and engineering meet: Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, held in Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 12–14, 2017 (pp. 2474-2483). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59471-2_282
Wolfs, R.J.M. ; Bos, F.P. ; van Strien, E.C.F. ; Salet, T.A.M. / A real-time height measurement and feedback system for 3D concrete printing. High Tech Concrete: where technology and engineering meet: Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, held in Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 12–14, 2017. editor / D.A. Hordijk ; M. Luković. Cham : Springer, 2017. pp. 2474-2483
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Wolfs, RJM, Bos, FP, van Strien, ECF & Salet, TAM 2017, A real-time height measurement and feedback system for 3D concrete printing. in DA Hordijk & M Luković (eds), High Tech Concrete: where technology and engineering meet: Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, held in Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 12–14, 2017. Springer, Cham, pp. 2474-2483, 2017 fib Symposium, June 12–14, 2017, Maastricht, The Netherlands, Maastricht, Netherlands, 12/06/17. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59471-2_282

A real-time height measurement and feedback system for 3D concrete printing. / Wolfs, R.J.M.; Bos, F.P.; van Strien, E.C.F.; Salet, T.A.M.

High Tech Concrete: where technology and engineering meet: Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, held in Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 12–14, 2017. ed. / D.A. Hordijk; M. Luković. Cham : Springer, 2017. p. 2474-2483.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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AB - Recent years have seen a rapid growth of additive manufacturing methods for concrete construction. Generally, these methods are based on a linear sequence of design → print path definition → actual printer actions in a print environment. However, printing experiments show that a large number of parameters influence the printing process. Not all of these can be predicted accurate on forehand. Therefore, a method is introduced that allows real-time adjustment of the print process. As a proof-of-concept, a measurement system for the nozzle height has been developed and tested. Because this variable relates to machine properties, environmental conditions as well as material behaviour, it is a crucial parameter to control. In two case study prints, the effectiveness of the device was shown. In one study, the printer could follow a range of irregular curves in the print bed, whereas only a simple flat rectangular print path had been programmed. In the other, it was shown the print path could be adjusted to vertical deformation of the previous layers of printed filament in a tubular object of several dozen layers. Thus, premature failure through irregular loading of the object during printing was avoided. Further expansion of the use of real-time measurement devices may be anticipated in the future. Besides more advanced geometrical measuring, chemical and physical conditions such as concrete temperature (both before and after deposition), surface wetness, and environment humidity, can be recorded. Combined with the machine action log, this should result in a detailed set of as-built data of the printed object, allowing e.g. for a geometrical clash control with the design as well as other quality controls.

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M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 978-3-319-59470-5

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EP - 2483

BT - High Tech Concrete: where technology and engineering meet

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Wolfs RJM, Bos FP, van Strien ECF, Salet TAM. A real-time height measurement and feedback system for 3D concrete printing. In Hordijk DA, Luković M, editors, High Tech Concrete: where technology and engineering meet: Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, held in Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 12–14, 2017. Cham: Springer. 2017. p. 2474-2483 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59471-2_282