A process classification framework for defining and describing Digital Fabrication with Concrete

Richard Buswell (Corresponding author), Wilson Leal da Silva, Freek P. Bos, H.R. (Roel) Schipper, Dirk Lowke, Norman Hack, Harald Kloft, Viktor Mechtcherine, Tim Wangler, Nicolas Roussel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

126 Citations (Scopus)


Digital Fabrication with Concrete (DFC) encompasses 3D Concrete Printing (3DCP) and many other methods of production. DFC is emerging from an era of invention and demonstration to one where the merits of one principle over another needs to be quantified systematically. DFC technologies vary in characteristics, complexity and maturity which hampers the synthesis of research and comparisons of performance. The interdependence of design geometry, material properties and process characteristics is well recognised. Materials research has made significant progress in recent years and there have been many applications with varying design geometries demonstrated. Far less has been done to guide the definition and description of the processes used. This work takes a step forward by presenting classification and process description guidance for DFC. The approach was developed by engaging a broad cross-section of the international community through the activities of the RILEM Technical Committee 276 between 2016 and 2020.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106068
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020


FundersFunder number
DFG-funded Digital Building Fabrication Laboratory
Gerhard and Karin Matthäi FoundationSC3DP
Ministry for Science and Culture
National Centre for Competence in Research: Digital Fabrication in Architecture
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research CouncilEP/S031405/1, EP/P031420/1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft10 ] 387152958
Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung
Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst Baden-Württemberg


    • Classification
    • Concrete printing
    • Digital fabrication
    • RILEM
    • Standards
    • TC276


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