Biological studies and clinical trials show that addition of hyperthermia stimulates conventional cancer treatment modalities and significantly improves treatment outcome. This supra-additive stimulation can be optimized by adaptive hyperthermia to counteract strong and dynamic thermoregulation. The only clinically proven method for the 3D non-invasive temperature monitoring required is by magnetic resonance (MR) temperature imaging, but the currently available set of MR compatible hyperthermia applicators lack the degree of heat control required. In this work, we present the design and validation of a high-frequency (433 MHz ISM band) printed circuit board antenna with a very low MR-footprint. This design is ideally suited for use in a range of hyperthermia applicator configurations. Experiments emulating the clinical situation show excellent matching properties of the antenna over a 7.2% bandwidth (S 11 < −15 dB). Its strongly directional radiation properties minimize inter-element coupling for typical array configurations (S 21 < −23 dB). MR imaging distortion by the antenna was found negligible and MR temperature imaging in a homogeneous muscle phantom was highly correlated with gold-standard probe measurements (root mean square error: RMSE = 0.51 °C and R 2 = 0.99). This work paves the way for tailored MR imaging guided hyperthermia devices ranging from single antenna or incoherent antenna-arrays, to real-time adaptive hyperthermia with phased-arrays.
- MR thermometry
- printed antenna
- Microwaves/therapeutic use
- Hyperthermia, Induced/instrumentation
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging/instrumentation
- Phantoms, Imaging