OBJECTIVE: Mild hyperthermia (HT) treatments are generally monitored by phase-referenced proton resonance frequency shift calculations. A novel phase and thus temperature-sensitive fast spin echo (TFSE) sequence is introduced and compared to the double echo gradient echo (DEGRE) sequence.
THEORY AND METHODS: For a proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS)-sensitive TFSE sequence, a phase cycling method is applied to separate even from odd echoes. This method compensates for conductivity change-induced bias in temperature mapping as does the DEGRE sequence. Both sequences were alternately applied during a phantom heating experiment using the clinical setup for deep radio frequency HT (RF-HT). The B0 drift-corrected temperature values in a region of interest around temperature probes are compared to the temperature probe data and further evaluated in Bland-Altman plots. The stability of both methods was also tested within the thighs of three volunteers at a constant temperature using the subcutaneous fat layer for B0-drift correction.
RESULTS: During the phantom heating experiment, on average TFSE temperature maps achieved double temperature-to-noise ratio (TNR) efficiency in comparison with DEGRE temperature maps. In-vivo images of the thighs exhibit stable temperature readings of ± 1 °C over 25 min of scanning in three volunteers for both methods. On average, the TNR efficiency improved by around 25% for in vivo data.
CONCLUSION: A novel TFSE method has been adapted to monitor temperature during mild HT.
|Number of pages
|Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
|Published - 1 Jun 2019
- Double echo gradient echo
- Fast spin echo
- MR thermometry
- Proton resonance frequency shift