A numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea : skill assessment and analysis of hydrodynamics

U. Gräwe, G. Flöser, T. Gerkema, M. Duran Matute, T.H. Badewien, E. Schulz, H. Burchard

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Abstract

A baroclinic three-dimensional numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea of the German Bight in the southern North Sea is first assessed by comparison to field data for surface elevation, current velocity, temperature, and salinity at selected stations and then used to calculate fluxes of volume and salt inside the Wadden Sea and the exchange between the Wadden Sea and the adjacent North Sea through the major tidal inlets. The model is simulating the reference years 2009–2011. An overview of tidal prisms and residual volume fluxes of the main inlets and their variability is given. In addition, data from an intensive observational campaign in a tidal channel south of the island of Spiekeroog as well as satellite images and observations of sea surface properties from a ship of opportunity are used for the skill assessment. Finally, the intensity of estuarine overturning circulation and its variability in the tidal gullies are quantified and analyzed as function of gravitational and wind straining using various estimates including Total Exchange Flow (TEF). Regional differences between the gullies are assessed and drivers of the estuarine circulation are identified. For some inlets, the longitudinal buoyancy gradient dominates the exchange flow, for some others wind straining is more important. Also the intensity of tidal straining (scaled covariance of eddy viscosity and vertical shear) depends on buoyancy gradient and wind forcing in different ways, depending on local topography, orientation toward the main wind direction, and influence by freshwater run off inside or outside the tidal basin.
LanguageEnglish
Pages5231-5251
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research. C, Oceans
Volume121
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

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hydrodynamics
gully
buoyancy
tidal inlet
tidal channel
wind forcing
current velocity
wind direction
sea surface
eddy
viscosity
topography
salt
salinity
basin
Wadden Sea
analysis
temperature
sea
satellite image

Cite this

Gräwe, U., Flöser, G., Gerkema, T., Duran Matute, M., Badewien, T. H., Schulz, E., & Burchard, H. (2016). A numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea : skill assessment and analysis of hydrodynamics. Journal of Geophysical Research. C, Oceans, 121(7), 5231-5251. DOI: 10.1002/2016JC011655
Gräwe, U. ; Flöser, G. ; Gerkema, T. ; Duran Matute, M. ; Badewien, T.H. ; Schulz, E. ; Burchard, H./ A numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea : skill assessment and analysis of hydrodynamics. In: Journal of Geophysical Research. C, Oceans. 2016 ; Vol. 121, No. 7. pp. 5231-5251
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Gräwe, U, Flöser, G, Gerkema, T, Duran Matute, M, Badewien, TH, Schulz, E & Burchard, H 2016, 'A numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea : skill assessment and analysis of hydrodynamics' Journal of Geophysical Research. C, Oceans, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. 5231-5251. DOI: 10.1002/2016JC011655

A numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea : skill assessment and analysis of hydrodynamics. / Gräwe, U.; Flöser, G.; Gerkema, T.; Duran Matute, M.; Badewien, T.H. ; Schulz, E.; Burchard, H.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research. C, Oceans, Vol. 121, No. 7, 2016, p. 5231-5251.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - A numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea : skill assessment and analysis of hydrodynamics

AU - Gräwe,U.

AU - Flöser,G.

AU - Gerkema,T.

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AU - Badewien,T.H.

AU - Schulz,E.

AU - Burchard,H.

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N2 - A baroclinic three-dimensional numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea of the German Bight in the southern North Sea is first assessed by comparison to field data for surface elevation, current velocity, temperature, and salinity at selected stations and then used to calculate fluxes of volume and salt inside the Wadden Sea and the exchange between the Wadden Sea and the adjacent North Sea through the major tidal inlets. The model is simulating the reference years 2009–2011. An overview of tidal prisms and residual volume fluxes of the main inlets and their variability is given. In addition, data from an intensive observational campaign in a tidal channel south of the island of Spiekeroog as well as satellite images and observations of sea surface properties from a ship of opportunity are used for the skill assessment. Finally, the intensity of estuarine overturning circulation and its variability in the tidal gullies are quantified and analyzed as function of gravitational and wind straining using various estimates including Total Exchange Flow (TEF). Regional differences between the gullies are assessed and drivers of the estuarine circulation are identified. For some inlets, the longitudinal buoyancy gradient dominates the exchange flow, for some others wind straining is more important. Also the intensity of tidal straining (scaled covariance of eddy viscosity and vertical shear) depends on buoyancy gradient and wind forcing in different ways, depending on local topography, orientation toward the main wind direction, and influence by freshwater run off inside or outside the tidal basin.

AB - A baroclinic three-dimensional numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea of the German Bight in the southern North Sea is first assessed by comparison to field data for surface elevation, current velocity, temperature, and salinity at selected stations and then used to calculate fluxes of volume and salt inside the Wadden Sea and the exchange between the Wadden Sea and the adjacent North Sea through the major tidal inlets. The model is simulating the reference years 2009–2011. An overview of tidal prisms and residual volume fluxes of the main inlets and their variability is given. In addition, data from an intensive observational campaign in a tidal channel south of the island of Spiekeroog as well as satellite images and observations of sea surface properties from a ship of opportunity are used for the skill assessment. Finally, the intensity of estuarine overturning circulation and its variability in the tidal gullies are quantified and analyzed as function of gravitational and wind straining using various estimates including Total Exchange Flow (TEF). Regional differences between the gullies are assessed and drivers of the estuarine circulation are identified. For some inlets, the longitudinal buoyancy gradient dominates the exchange flow, for some others wind straining is more important. Also the intensity of tidal straining (scaled covariance of eddy viscosity and vertical shear) depends on buoyancy gradient and wind forcing in different ways, depending on local topography, orientation toward the main wind direction, and influence by freshwater run off inside or outside the tidal basin.

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EP - 5251

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research. C, Oceans

T2 - Journal of Geophysical Research. C, Oceans

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research. C, Oceans

SN - 2169-9275

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ER -