A multi-objective optimization approach to risk-constrained energy and reserve procurement using demand response

N.G. Paterakis, M. Gibescu, A.G. Bakirtzis, J.P.S. Catalao

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53 Citations (Scopus)
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The large-scale integration of wind generation in power systems increases the need for reserve procurement in order to accommodate its highly uncertain nature, a fact that may overshadow its environmental and economic benefits. For this reason, the design of reserve procurement mechanisms should be reconsidered in order to embed resources that are capable of providing reserve services in an economically optimal way. In this study, a joint energy and reserve day-ahead market structure based on two-stage stochastic programming is presented. The developed model incorporates explicitly the participation of demand side resources in the provision of load following reserves. Since a load that incurs a demand reduction may need to recover this energy in other periods, different types of load recovery requirements are modeled. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the risk associated with the decisions of the system operator and to assess the effect of procuring and compensating load reductions, the Conditional Value-at-Risk metric is employed. In order to solve the resulting multi-objective optimization problem, a new approach based on an improved variant of the epsilon-constraint method is adopted. This study demonstrates that the proposed approach to risk management presents conceptual advantages over the commonly used weighted sum method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3940-3954
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018


  • augmented epsilon-constraint method
  • conditional value-at-risk
  • day-ahead market
  • demand side reserves
  • Load management
  • load recovery
  • Power transmission lines
  • Procurement
  • risk management
  • Spinning
  • stochastic optimization
  • Stochastic processes
  • wind power
  • Wind power generation
  • Augmented epsilon-constraint method


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