A model-based approach to generating annotated pressure support waveforms

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Large numbers of asynchronies during pressure support ventilation cause discomfort and higher work of breathing in the patient, and are associated with an increased mortality. There is a need for real-time decision support to detect asynchronies and assist the clinician towards lung-protective ventilation. Machine learning techniques have been proposed to detect asynchronies, but they require large datasets with sufficient data diversity, sample size, and quality for training purposes. In this work, we propose a method for generating a large, realistic and labeled, synthetic dataset for training and validating machine learning algorithms to detect a wide variety of asynchrony types. We take a model-based approach in which we adapt a non-linear lung-airway model for use in a diverse patient group and add a first-order ventilator model to generate labeled pressure, flow, and volume waveforms of pressure support ventilation. The model was able to reproduce basic measured lung mechanics parameters. Experienced clinicians were not able to differentiate between the simulated waveforms and clinical data (P = 0.44 by Fisher’s exact test). The detection performance of the machine learning trained on clinical data gave an overall comparable true positive rate on clinical data and on simulated data (an overall true positive rate of 94.3% and positive predictive value of 93.5% on simulated data and a true positive rate of 98% and positive predictive value of 98% on clinical data). Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to generate labeled pressure and flow waveforms with different types of asynchronies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1739-1752
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

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© 2022, The Author(s).


  • Asynchronies
  • Machine learning
  • mechanical ventilation
  • Model based methods
  • Patient-ventilator interactions


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