A mm-Wave Phased-Array Fed Torus Reflector Antenna with ±30° Scan Range for Massive-MIMO Base-Station Applications

Amr Elsakka (Corresponding author), Amirashkan Farsaei, A.J. van den Biggelaar, Ad C.F. Reniers, Martin N. Johansson, Rob Maaskant, Ulf Johannsen, Oleg A. Iupikov, A.B. Smolders, Marianna V. Ivashina

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A phased-array fed reflector antenna system is presented which can be used for mm-wave base station applications. The proposed system is designed to support massive-multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) scenarios within a wide coverage ( $\pm 30^\circ $ ) in the azimuth plane and a limited coverage at the elevation plane. A design and characterization methodology has been established to optimize the system for the operation in various line-of-sight conditions by adopting the maximum-ratio-transmission (MRT) and zero-forcing (ZF) MIMO algorithms. A two-user MIMO case study has been considered for the evaluation of the key system performance metrics, i.e., the effective isotropic radiated power, power consumption, signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR). This study demonstrates that the phased-array fed reflector concept has a major advantage over traditional direct-radiating phased-array (DRPA) antennas to reduce energy consumption. In the present example, it requires 12-14 dB less transmitted power as compared with the MRT-beamformed DRPAs for the same SNR, and 26-27 dB less transmitted power relatively to ZF-beamformed DRPA systems for the same SINR. A prototype, employing a 55 cm diameter torus reflector and operating at 28 GHz-band, has been manufactured and tested. The measurement results agree well with simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3398-3410
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2022


  • Antennas
  • Array signal processing
  • focal plane arrays
  • Gain
  • Interference
  • massive-MIMO
  • MIMO communication
  • mm-wave
  • Phased arrays
  • reflector antenna
  • Signal to noise ratio
  • wide scan range
  • Focal plane arrays
  • massive-multi-inputâmulti-output (MIMO)
  • phased arrays


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