A meta-analytically derived nomological network of procrastination

W. Eerde, van

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

295 Citations (Scopus)
10 Downloads (Pure)


This meta-analysis contains the correlations of 121 studies examining the relation between procrastination and personality variables, motives, affect, and performance. The largest negative effect sizes were found in relation to conscientiousness and self-efficacy, and the largest positive relation was found with self-handicapping. Affect was moderately related, as well as performance outcomes, and motives were weakly correlated. Many of the effect size categories were heterogeneous, indicating that moderators may play a role. However, the majority of studies did not account for moderators. It is argued that this is a serious shortcoming and that a different type of research is needed to study procrastination in a meaningful way.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1401-1418
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2003


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