A low-power fast start-up crystal oscillator with an autonomous dynamically adjusted load

Ming Ding (Corresponding author), Yao Hong Liu, Pieter Harpe, Christian Bachmann, Kathleen Philips, Arthur van Roermund

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
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An energy-efficient fast start-up method for crystal oscillators is presented, which enables aggressive duty-cycled operation of IoT radios to minimize overall power consumption. A digitally controlled crystal oscillator using the proposed start-up technique in 90-nm CMOS is presented. Thanks to the dynamically adjusted load, the negative resistance is boosted, achieving a 13 × start-up time reduction and an overall power of 95μ W for a 24-MHz crystal oscillator at 1 V. A fully autonomous feedback loop detects the oscillators envelop and adjusts the load capacitance at start-up. Thanks to the low-power start-up circuits, both the start-up time and the start-up energy are reduced. In addition, the robustness and versatility of the proposed method is verified by measuring quartz crystals with different frequencies and quality factors, as well as measuring against temperature, supply voltage, and load capacitance variations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8544016
Pages (from-to)1382-1392
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019


  • Crystal Oscillator
  • fast start-up
  • IoT
  • low-power
  • negative resistance
  • variation-tolerant


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