Urban wind energy can provide a decentralized local source of energy for residential areas and reduce the cost of energy by avoiding the losses/costs of long-distance energy transmission. In this perspective, a preliminary assessment of urban wind energy is highly desired by turbine developers, investors and policy makers. However, given the large number of parameters involved, predictions of the wind energy potential in urban areas are very challenging. The present paper, therefore, intends to present a straightforward framework to provide a preliminary and large-scale assessment of the urban wind energy potential, i.e. at city or country scales, for roof-mounted turbines. The framework is based on four main steps: (i) collecting the building data, i.e. the number of potential candidate high-rise buildings and their height and rooftop surface area; (ii) obtaining the annual mean wind speed statistics at the height of these buildings and sorting the building data based on these statistics; (iii) obtaining the turbine characteristics and determining the average number of turbines per building roof; (iv) calculating the annual energy production (AEP). The application of the framework is then illustrated at the country scale for the Netherlands. In this case, the urban wind energy potential is assessed by considering the installation of 18,156 small wind turbines on the roofs of 1513 existing high-rise buildings in 12 major cities in the Netherlands, yielding an annual energy production of 150.1 GWh.
- Building-integrated wind energy harvesting
- Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT)
- Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT)
- Wind engineering
- Wind resource assessment
- Roof-mounted wind turbines