A comprehensive value framework for design

Shadi Kheirandish (Corresponding author), Mathias Funk, Stephan Wensveen, Maarten Verkerk, Matthias Rauterberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The significance of human values in everyday life highlights the integral role of this concept in any design that aims to improve the quality of human life. By emphasizing the need for a comprehensive value framework for design, the present study explores a new value framework to be used as a common ground in design. For this purpose, we empirically investigate how different people group human values. By spreading the link of our Human Values Survey worldwide via the internet, a variety of participants with different cultural backgrounds were reached, and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to analyze the data. As a result, 568 complete answers were collected, from which nine value groups were concluded: “carefulness”, “justice”, “ecology”, “respect for others”, “meaningfulness”, “status”, “pleasure”, “respect for oneself” and “personal development”. After clustering our data, we propose a value framework with four themes, nine value groups, 42 key values, and 135 extra values. This framework, raising designers’ awareness and widening their view of human values, provides the opportunity to address a diverse range of human values in design.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101302
Number of pages12
JournalTechnology in Society
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020


  • Cluster analysis
  • Design studies
  • Empirical research
  • Human values
  • Interdisciplinarity
  • Value framework


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