4D Printing of Liquid Crystals: What’s Right for Me?

Marc del Pozo Puig, Jeroen A.H.P. Sol, Albert P.H.J. Schenning, Michael G. Debije (Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)
217 Downloads (Pure)


Recent years have seen major advances in the developments of both additive manufacturing concepts and responsive materials. When combined as 4D printing, the process can lead to functional materials and devices for use in health, energy generation, sensing, and soft robots. Among responsive materials, liquid crystals, which can deliver programmed, reversible, rapid responses in both air and underwater, are a prime contender for additive manufacturing, given their ease of use and adaptability to many different applications. In this paper, selected works are compared and analyzed to come to a didactical overview of the liquid crystal-additive manufacturing junction. Reading from front to back gives the reader a comprehensive understanding of the options and challenges in the field, while researchers already experienced in either liquid crystals or additive manufacturing are encouraged to scan through the text to see how they can incorporate additive manufacturing or liquid crystals into their own work. The educational text is closed with proposals for future research in this crossover field.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2104390
Number of pages34
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2022


  • 4D printing
  • additive manufacturing
  • direct ink writing
  • liquid crystals
  • stimuli-responsive materials
  • two-photon polymerization direct laser writing
  • two-way shape memory


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