3D indium tin oxide electrodes by ultrasonic spray deposition for current collection applications

E.J. van den Ham, K. Elen, G. Bonneux, G. Maino, P.H.L. Notten, M.K. van Bael, A. Hardy

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    5 Citations (Scopus)


    Three dimensionally (3D) structured indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are synthesized and characterized as a 3D electrode material for current collection applications. Using metal citrate chemistry in combination with ultrasonic spray deposition, a low cost wet-chemical method has been developed to achieve conformal ITO coatings on non-planar scaffolds. Although there is room for improvement with respect to the resistivity (9.9·10 −3 Ω∙cm, 220 nm thick planar films), high quality 3D structured coatings were shown to exhibit conductive properties based on ferrocene reactivity. In view of applications in Li-ion batteries, the electrochemical stability of the current collector was investigated, indicating that stability is guaranteed for voltages of 1.5 V and up (vs. Li +/Li). In addition, subsequent 3D coating of the ITO with WO 3 as a negative electrode (battery) material confirmed the 3D ITO layer functions as a proper current collector. Using this approach, an over 4-fold capacity increase was booked for 3D structured WO 3 in comparison to planar samples, confirming the current collecting capabilities of the 3D ITO coating. Therefore, the 3D ITO presented is considered as a highly interesting material for 3D battery applications and beyond.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)130-137
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Power Sources
    Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2017


    • 3D structures
    • Current collector
    • Films
    • ITO
    • TCO
    • Transparent conductive oxide


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