19F MRSI of capecitabine in the liver at 7 T using broadband transmit-receive antennas and dual-band RF pulses

J.S. van Gorp, P.R. Seevinck, A. Andreychenko, A.J.E. Raaijmakers, P.R Luijten, M.A. Viergever, M. Koopman, V.O. Boer, D.W.J. Klomp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Capecitabine (Cap) is an often prescribed chemotherapeutic agent, successfully used to cure some patients from cancer or reduce tumor burden for palliative care. However, the efficacy of the drug is limited, it is not known in advance who will respond to the drug and it can come with severe toxicity. (19)F Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) have been used to non-invasively study Cap metabolism in vivo to find a marker for personalized treatment. In vivo detection, however, is hampered by low concentrations and the use of radiofrequency (RF) surface coils limiting spatial coverage. In this work, the use of a 7T MR system with radiative multi-channel transmit-receive antennas was investigated with the aim of maximizing the sensitivity and spatial coverage of (19)F detection protocols. The antennas were broadband optimized to facilitate both the (1)H (298 MHz) and (19)F (280 MHz) frequencies for accurate shimming, imaging and signal combination. B1(+) simulations, phantom and noise measurements showed that more than 90% of the theoretical maximum sensitivity could be obtained when using B1(+) and B1(-) information provided at the (1)H frequency for the optimization of B1(+) and B1(-) at the (19)F frequency. Furthermore, to overcome the limits in maximum available RF power, whilst ensuring simultaneous excitation of all detectable conversion products of Cap, a dual-band RF pulse was designed and evaluated. Finally, (19)F MRS(I) measurements were performed to detect (19)F metabolites in vitro and in vivo. In two patients, at 10 h (patient 1) and 1 h (patient 2) after Cap intake, (19)F metabolites were detected in the liver and the surrounding organs, illustrating the potential of the set-up for in vivo detection of metabolic rates and drug distribution in the body.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1433-1442
Number of pages10
JournalNMR in Biomedicine
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Capecitabine
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Fluorine
  • Fluorine-19 Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Humans
  • Liver
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Radio Waves
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Transducers
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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