Regulation of inflammation is a central part of the maintenance of homeostasis by the immune system. One important class of regulatory protein that has been shown to have effects on the inflammatory process are the 14−3-3 proteins. Herein we describe the roles that have been identified for 14−3-3 in regulation of the inflammatory response. These roles encompass regulation of the response that affect inflammation at the genetic, molecular and cellular levels. At a genetic level 14−3-3 is involved in the regulation of multiple transcription factors and affects the transcription of key effectors of the immune response. At a molecular level many of the constituent parts of the inflammatory process, such as pattern recognition receptors, protease activated receptors and cytokines are regulated through phosphorylation and recognition by 14−3-3 whilst disruption of the recognition processes has been observed to result in clinical syndromes. 14−3-3 is also involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, this has been shown to affect the immune system, particularly T- and B-cells. Finally, we discuss how abnormal levels of 14−3-3 contribute to undesirable immune responses and chronic inflammatory conditions.
- 14-3-3 protein
- Autoimmune disease
- Chronic inflammatory condition
- Protein-protein interaction
- Respiratory disease