Online advertising plays a great role in the income of an online publisher. The company can easily place ad slots in its website and increase its revenue by selling these ad slots to the advertisers. When a user opens a website containing an ad slot, a request to fill the slot is generated and sent to ad networks. Ad networks are entities between advertisers and publishers that run auctions to find an appropriate advertisement for each ad request. Advertisers build and manage advertising campaigns to participate in the auction and find appropriate platform to render their products or brands. There are two other stakeholders in the bidding environment: Supply Side Platforms (SSP) to help publishers in managing their ad slots and Demand Side Platforms (DSP) for assisting advertisers in making and bidding advertisement campaigns. In the publisher side, whenever a user opens a website, a request is sent to the SSP and the response is either an advertisement filling the ad slot, or a message showing that this attempt was unsuccessful. Depending which auction a publisher opts for filling their advertising slot, there are three main problems.
Determining floor price: The first problem that publishers face is how to set the price of their inventories to obtain the maximum revenue.
Participating in the auction: After determining the floor price, publishers should participate in an auction to find proper ads. Many ad networks are available to receive ad requests and run auctions.
Considering the auction as a multi-agent environment: The third problem for a publisher is making decisions based on the other publishers, advertisers, and ad networks.