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Research Output 1984 2020

2020

Color determination from a single broadband organic photodiode

Dyson, M. J., Verhage, M., Ma, X., Simone, G., Tordera, D., Janssen, R. A. J. & Gelinck, G. H., 1 Jan 2020, (Accepted/In press) In : Advanced Optical Materials. 1901722.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Photodiodes
Oxides
photodiodes
Metals
broadband
1 Citation (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)

Controlling the microstructure of conjugated polymers in high-mobility monolayer transistors via the dissolution temperature

Li, M., Bin, H., Jiao, X., Wienk, M. M., Yan, H. & Janssen, R. A. J., 7 Jan 2020, In : Angewandte Chemie - International Edition. 59, 2, p. 846-852 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Conjugated polymers
Monolayers
Transistors
Dissolution
Polymers
1 Citation (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)

On the origin of dark current in organic photodiodes

Simone, G., Dyson, M. J., Weijtens, C. H. L., Meskers, S. C. J., Coehoorn, R., Janssen, R. A. J. & Gelinck, G. H., 1 Jan 2020, In : Advanced Optical Materials. 8, 1, 7 p., 1901568.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Dark currents
dark current
Photodiodes
photodiodes
Heterojunctions
2019
2 Citations (Scopus)
47 Downloads (Pure)

Adjusting aggregation modes and photophysical and photovoltaic properties of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based small molecules by introducing B←N bonds

Pang, S., Más-Montoya, M., Xiao, M., Duan, C., Wang, Z., Liu, X., Janssen, R. A. J., Yu, G., Huang, F. & Cao, Y., 7 Jan 2019, In : Chemistry : A European Journal. 25, 2, p. 564-572 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Agglomeration
Molecules
Fullerenes
Excited states
Crystal orientation
9 Citations (Scopus)
52 Downloads (Pure)

Advances in solution-processed multijunction organic solar cells

Rasi, D. D. C. & Janssen, R. A. J., 8 Mar 2019, In : Advanced Materials. 31, 10, 27 p., 1806499.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
4 Citations (Scopus)

Carboxylate-substituted polythiophenes for efficient fullerene-free polymer solar cells: the effect of chlorination on their properties

Wang, Q., Li, M., Zhang, X., Qin, Y., Wang, J., Zhang, J., Hou, J., Janssen, R. A. J. & Geng, Y., 25 Jun 2019, In : Macromolecules. 52, 12, p. 4464-4474 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Fullerenes
Chlorination
Chlorine
Polymers
Fluorine
2 Citations (Scopus)
43 Downloads (Pure)
Open Access
File
Fullerenes
Electron energy levels
fullerenes
fission
Charge transfer
2 Citations (Scopus)
31 Downloads (Pure)

Efficient thick-film polymer solar cells with enhanced fill factors via increased fullerene loading

Duan, C., Peng, Z., Colberts, F. J. M., Pang, S., Ye, L., Awartani, O. M., Hendriks, K. H., Ade, H., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., 20 Mar 2019, In : ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 11, 11, p. 10794-10800 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Fullerenes
Thick films
Polymers
Polymer solar cells
Electron mobility
3 Citations (Scopus)
35 Downloads (Pure)

Impact of polymorphism on the optoelectronic properties of a low-bandgap semiconducting polymer

Li, M., Balawi, A. H., Leenaers, P. J., Ning, L., Heintges, G. H. L., Marszalek, T., Pisula, W., Wienk, M. M., Meskers, S. C. J., Yi, Y., Laquai, F. & Janssen, R. A. J., 28 Jun 2019, In : Nature Communications. 10, 1, 11 p., 2867.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Semiconducting polymers
polymorphism
Polymorphism
Optoelectronic devices
Polymers
1 Citation (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)

Insights into fullerene passivation of SnO2 electron transport layers in perovskite solar cells

Wang, J., Datta, K., Weijtens, C. H. L., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., 1 Nov 2019, In : Advanced Functional Materials. 29, 46, 12 p., 1905883.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
11 Downloads (Pure)

On the homocoupling of trialkylstannyl monomers in the synthesis of diketopyrrolopyrrole polymers and its effect on the performance of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic cells

Heintges, G. H. L. & Janssen, R. A. J., 23 May 2019, In : RSC Advances. 9, 28, p. 15703-15714 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Fullerenes
Photovoltaic cells
Polymers
Monomers
Thiophenes
1 Citation (Scopus)
Open Access
Dark currents
Photodetectors
dark current
Image sensors
photometers
13 Citations (Scopus)
23 Downloads (Pure)
Open Access
File
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
Molecular orbitals
Open circuit voltage
Voltammetry
Photoelectron spectroscopy
16 Downloads (Pure)

Solution-processed tin oxide-PEDOT:PSS interconnecting layers for efficient inverted and conventional tandem polymer solar cells

Rasi, D. D. C., van Thiel, P. M. J. G., Bin, H., Hendriks, K. H., Heintges, G. H. L., Wienk, M. M., Becker, T., Li, Y., Riedl, T. & Janssen, R. A. J., Apr 2019, In : Solar RRL. 3, 4, 10 p., 1800366.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
27 Downloads (Pure)

The influence of siloxane side-chains on the photovoltaic performance of a conjugated polymer

Heintges, G. H. L., Hendriks, K. H., Colberts, F. J. M., Li, M., Li, J. & Janssen, R. A. J., 15 Jan 2019, In : RSC Advances. 9, 16, p. 8740-8747 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Siloxanes
Conjugated polymers
Polymers
Solar cells
Solubility
15 Downloads (Pure)

The mechanism of dedoping PEDOT:PSS by aliphatic polyamines

van der Pol, T. P. A., Keene, S. T., Saes, B. W. H., Meskers, S. C. J., Salleo, A., van de Burgt, Y. & Janssen, R. A. J., 6 Sep 2019, In : Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 123, 39, p. 24328-24337 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Polyamines
Amines
amines
Deprotonation
low conductivity
2018
51 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)

8.0% efficient all-polymer solar cells with high photovoltage of 1.1 V and internal quantum efficiency near unity

Xu, X., Li, Z., Zhang, W., Meng, X., Zou, X., Di Carlo Rasi, D., Ma, W., Yartsev, A., Andersson, M. R., Janssen, R. A. J. & Wang, E., 5 Jan 2018, In : Advanced Energy Materials. 8, 1, 11 p., 1700908.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Quantum efficiency
Polymers
Molecular orbitals
Temperature programmed desorption
Conversion efficiency
Molecular orbitals
Open circuit voltage
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
Polymers
Voltammetry
66 Citations (Scopus)

A high dielectric constant non-fullerene acceptor for efficient bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

Liu, X., Xie, B., Duan, C., Wang, Z., Fan, B., Zhang, K., Lin, B., Colberts, F. J. M., Ma, W., Janssen, R. A. J., Huang, F. & Cao, Y., 14 Jan 2018, In : Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 6, 2, p. 395-403 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Heterojunctions
Permittivity
Semiconducting organic compounds
Oxides
Conversion efficiency
7 Citations (Scopus)
154 Downloads (Pure)

All-oxide MoOx/SnOx charge recombination interconnects for inverted organic tandem solar cells

Becker, T., Trost, S., Behrendt, A., Shutsko, I., Polywka, A., Görrn, P., Reckers, P., Das, C., Mayer, T., Di Carlo Rasi, D., Hendriks, K. H., Wienk, M. M., Janssen, R. A. J. & Riedl, T., 5 Apr 2018, In : Advanced Energy Materials. 8, 10, 8 p., 1702533.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Oxides
Solar cells
Metals
Tunnel junctions
Open circuit voltage
4 Downloads (Pure)

A universal route to fabricate n-i-p multi-junction polymer solar cells via solution processing

Rasi, D. D. C., Hendriks, K. H., Heintges, G. H. L., Simone, G., Gelinck, G. H., Gevaerts, V. S., Andriessen, R., Pirotte, G., Maes, W., Li, W., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., May 2018, In : Solar RRL. 2, 5, 11 p., 1800018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
31 Downloads (Pure)

Bilayer–ternary polymer solar cells fabricated using spontaneous spreading on water

Colberts, F. J. M., Wienk, M. M., Heuvel, R., Li, W., Le Corre, V. M., Koster, L. J. A. & Janssen, R. A. J., 3 Oct 2018, In : Advanced Energy Materials. 8, 32, 12 p., 1802197.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Energy gap
Quantum efficiency
Water
Lighting
Conversion efficiency
1 Citation (Scopus)
56 Downloads (Pure)

Bis(arylimidazole) iridium picolinate emitters and preferential dipole orientation in films

Huckaba, A. J., Senes, A., Aghazada, S., Babaei, A., Meskers, S. C. J., Zimmermann, I., Schouwink, P., Gasilova, N., Janssen, R. A. J., Bolink, H. J. & Nazeeruddin, M. K., 2018, In : ACS Omega. 3, 3, p. 2673-2682 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Iridium
Cyclic voltammetry
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Thin films
picolinic acid
2 Citations (Scopus)
25 Downloads (Pure)

Effects of fluorination and thermal annealing on charge recombination processes in polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells

Más-Montoya, M., Li, J., Wienk, M. M., Meskers, S. C. J. & Janssen, R. A. J., 1 Jan 2018, In : Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 6, 40, p. 19520-19531 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Fluorocarbon Polymers
Fluorination
Open circuit voltage
Photocurrents
Heterojunctions
46 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)

High-performance all-polymer solar cells based on fluorinated naphthalene diimide acceptor polymers with fine-tuned crystallinity and enhanced dielectric constants

Xu, X., Li, Z., Wang, J., Lin, B., Ma, W., Xia, Y., Andersson, M. R., Janssen, R. A. J. & Wang, E., 1 Mar 2018, In : Nano Energy. 45, p. 368-379 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Naphthalene
Polymers
Permittivity
Photocurrents
Fluorine
23 Downloads (Pure)

Improving performance of all-polymer solar cells through backbone engineering of both donors and acceptors

Duan, C., Li, Z., Pang, S., Zhu, Y-L., Lin, B., Colberts, F. J. M., Leenaers, P. J., Wang, E., Sun, Z-Y., Ma, W., Meskers, S. C. J. & Janssen, R. A. J., Dec 2018, In : Solar RRL. 2, 12, 10 p., 1800247.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
61 Citations (Scopus)
46 Downloads (Pure)

Morphology optimization via side chain engineering enables all-polymer solar cells with excellent fill factor and stability

Liu, X., Zhang, C., Duan, C., Li, M., Hu, Z., Wang, J., Liu, F., Li, N., Brabec, C. J., Janssen, R. A. J., Bazan, G. C., Huang, F. & Cao, Y., 18 Jul 2018, In : Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140, 28, p. 8934-8943 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Naphthalene
Polymers
Oxides
Conversion efficiency
Conjugated polymers
9 Citations (Scopus)
23 Downloads (Pure)

Near-infrared tandem organic photodiodes for future application in artificial retinal implants

Simone, G., Rasi, D. D. C., de Vries, X., Heintges, G. H. L., Meskers, S. C. J., Janssen, R. A. J. & Gelinck, G. H., Dec 2018, In : Advanced Materials. 30, 51, 7 p., 1804678.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
1 Citation (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)

New n-Type solution processable all conjugated polymer network: synthesis, optoelectronic characterization, and application in organic solar cells

Bildirir, H., Di Carlo Rasi, D., Wienk, M. M., Janssen, R. A. J., Avgeropoulos, A., Gregoriou, V. G., Allard, S., Scherf, U. & Chochos, C. L., 1 Mar 2018, In : Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 39, 5, p. 1-7 1700629.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Conjugated polymers
Optoelectronic devices
Fullerenes
Derivatives
Butyric acid
2 Citations (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)

Quadruple junction polymer solar cells with four complementary absorber layers

Rasi, D. D. C., Hendriks, K. H., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., 4 Oct 2018, In : Advanced Materials. 30, 40, 6 p., 1803836.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
6 Citations (Scopus)
61 Downloads (Pure)

Simulating phase separation during spin coating of a polymer–fullerene blend: a joint computational and experimental investigation

Negi, V., Wodo, O., van Franeker, J. J., Janssen, R. A. J. & Bobbert, P. A., 26 Feb 2018, In : ACS Applied Energy Materials. 1, 2, p. 725-735 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Spin coating
Phase separation
Drying
Evaporation
Linear stability analysis
2 Citations (Scopus)

Study of the morphology of organic ferroelectric diodes with combined scanning force and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

Bernard, L., Khikhlovskyi, V., van Breemen, A. J. N., Michels, J. J., Janssen, R., Kemerink, M., Gelinck, G. H. & Pilet, N., 1 Feb 2018, In : Organic Electronics. 53, p. 242-248 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Ferroelectric materials
Microscopic examination
Diodes
diodes
microscopy
7 Citations (Scopus)
52 Downloads (Pure)

Subnaphthalocyanines as electron acceptors in polymer solar cells: Improving device performance by modifying peripheral and axial substituents

Duan, C., Guzmán, D., Colberts, F. J. M., Janssen, R. A. J. & Torres, T., 25 Apr 2018, In : Chemistry : A European Journal. 24, 24, p. 6339-6343 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Bearings (structural)
Photocurrents
Heterojunctions
Solar cells
Polymers
13 Citations (Scopus)
79 Downloads (Pure)

The effect of oxygen on the efficiency of planar p-i-n metal halide perovskite solar cells with a PEDOT: PSS hole transport layer

Bruijnaers, B. J., Schiepers, E., Weijtens, C. H. L., Meskers, S. C. J., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., 1 Jan 2018, In : Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 6, 16, p. 6882-6890 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Metal halides
Polystyrenes
Oxygen
Perovskite
Open circuit voltage
6 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)

The effect of side-chain substitution on the aggregation and photovoltaic performance of diketopyrrolopyrrole-alt-dicarboxylic ester bithiophene polymers

Heuvel, R., Colberts, F. J. M., Li, J., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., 1 Jan 2018, In : Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 6, 42, p. 20904-20915 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Esters
Polymers
Substitution reactions
Agglomeration
Monomers
12 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)

The impact of device polarity on the performance of Polymer-Fullerene solar cells

Li, M., Li, J., Rasi, D. D. C., Colberts, F. J. M., Wang, J., Heintges, G. H. L., Lin, B., Li, W., Ma, W., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., 6 Aug 2018, In : Advanced Energy Materials. 8, 22, 12 p., 1800550.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
7 Citations (Scopus)
56 Downloads (Pure)

Thermal behaviour of dicarboxylic ester bithiophene polymers exhibiting a high open-circuit voltage

Heuvel, R., Colberts, F. J. M., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., 1 Jan 2018, In : Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 6, 14, p. 3731-3742 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Open circuit voltage
Esters
Polymers
Chain length
Thiophenes
2017
19 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)

2-Methoxyethanol as a new solvent for processing methylammonium lead halide perovskite solar cells

Hendriks, K. H., van Franeker, J. J., Bruijnaers, B. J., Anta, J. A., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., 2017, In : Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 5, 5, p. 2346-2354 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Dimethylformamide
Lead
Crystallites
Perovskite
Solar cells
126 Citations (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)

9.0% power conversion efficiency from ternary all-polymer solar cells

Li, Z., Xu, X., Zhang, W., Meng, X., Genene, Z., Ma, W., Mammo, W., Yartsev, A., Andersson, M., Janssen, R. A. J. & Wang, E., 1 Oct 2017, In : Energy & Environmental Science. 10, 10, p. 2212-2221 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Conversion efficiency
polymer
Polymers
Ternary systems
Polymer solar cells
5 Citations (Scopus)
66 Downloads (Pure)

Accurate characterization of triple-junction Polymer Solar Cells

Di Carlo Rasi, D., Hendriks, K. H., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., 22 Nov 2017, In : Advanced Energy Materials. 7, 22, 9 p., 1701664.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Quantum efficiency
Electric fields
Polymer solar cells
Short circuit currents
Current density
22 Citations (Scopus)
79 Downloads (Pure)

Aqueous nanoparticle polymer solar cells: effects of surfactant concentration and processing on device performance

Colberts, F. J. M., Wienk, M. M. & Janssen, R. A. J., 19 Apr 2017, In : ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 9, 15, p. 13380-13389 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Surface-Active Agents
Surface active agents
Nanoparticles
Processing
Conversion efficiency
21 Citations (Scopus)
56 Downloads (Pure)

Conjugated Polymers based on Difluorobenzoxadiazole toward practical application of Polymer Solar Cells

Wang, J., Wang, S., Duan, C., Colberts, F. J. M., Mai, J., Liu, X., Jia, X., Lu, X., Janssen, R. A. J., Huang, F. & Cao, Y., 22 Nov 2017, In : Advanced Energy Materials. 7, 22, 8 p., 1702033.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Conjugated polymers
Polymers
Conversion efficiency
Costs
Interpenetrating polymer networks
33 Citations (Scopus)
57 Downloads (Pure)

Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated polymers with Perylene Bisimide side chains for single-component organic solar cells

Lai, W., Li, C., Zhang, J., Yang, F., Colberts, F. J. M., Guo, B., Wang, Q. M. ., Li, M., Zhang, A., Janssen, R. A. J., Zhang, M. & Li, W., 12 Sep 2017, In : Chemistry of Materials. 29, 17, p. 7073-7077 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
46 Citations (Scopus)
38 Downloads (Pure)

"Double-Cable" conjugated polymers with linear backbone toward high quantum efficiencies in single-component polymer solar cells

Feng, G., Li, J., Colberts, F. J. M., Li, M., Zhang, J., Yang, F., Jin, Y., Zhang, F., Janssen, R. A. J., Li, C. & Li, W., 27 Dec 2017, In : Journal of the American Chemical Society. 139, 51, p. 18647-18656 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
9 Citations (Scopus)
93 Downloads (Pure)

Energy level tuning of Poly(phenylene-alt-dithienobenzothiadiazole)s for low photon energy loss solar cells

Heuvel, R., van Franeker, J. J. & Janssen, R. A. J., 1 Mar 2017, In : Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics. 218, 5, 11 p., 1600502.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Electron energy levels
Conversion efficiency
Energy dissipation
Solar cells
Photons
1 Downloads (Pure)

Evidence for exciton quenching by hole polarons in thick P3HT: PCBM solar cells

Gupta, D., van der Hofstad, T. G. J., Janssen, R. A. J. & Meskers, S. C. J., 18 Oct 2017, 2016 3rd International Conference on Emerging Electronics, ICEE 2016. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 8074601

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Polarons
Excitons
Quenching
Solar cells
Lighting
6 Citations (Scopus)
84 Downloads (Pure)

Ferroelectric switching and electrochemistry of pyrrole substituted trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides

Meng, X., Gorbunov, A. V., Roelofs, C., Meskers, S. C. J., Janssen, R. A. J., Kemerink, M. & Sijbesma, R. P., 1 Apr 2017, In : Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics. 55, 8, p. 673-683 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Pyrroles
Electrochemistry
pyrroles
electrochemistry
Ferroelectric materials
3 Downloads (Pure)

Highly efficient Perovskite solar cells using non-toxic industry compatible solvent system

Wang, J., Di Giacomo, F., Bruls, J., Gorter, H. H., Katsouras, I., Groen, W. A., Janssen, R. A. J., Andriessen, R. & Galagan, Y., Nov 2017, In : Solar RRL. 1, 11, 9 p., 1700091.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)

High-performance and stable all-polymer solar cells using donor and acceptor polymers with complementary absorption

Li, Z., Zhang, W., Xu, X., Genene, Z., Di Carlo Rasi, D., Mammo, W., Yartsev, A., Andersson, M. R., Janssen, R. A. J. & Wang, E., 19 Jul 2017, In : Advanced Energy Materials. 7, 14, 11 p., 1602722.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Polymers
Fullerenes
Photocurrents
Excitons
Electron energy levels