Department of Mechanical Engineering

Research Output 1957 2020

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Conference contribution
2020

Heat-transfer enhancement by adaptive reorientation of flow fields

Lensvelt, R., Speetjens, M. & Nijmeijer, H., 2020, (Accepted/In press) Proceedings 5th Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), April 5–8, 2020, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

flow field
heat transfer
baseflow
heating
fluid
2019
19 Downloads (Pure)

(R)evolutionary improvements in the design of interventional X-ray systems

van Pinxteren, J., Vermeulen, H. & Van Loon, R., 1 Jan 2019, European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Conference Proceedings - 19th International Conference and Exhibition, EUSPEN 2019. Leach, R. K., Billington, D., Nisbet, C. & Phillips, D. (eds.). European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, p. 534-537 4 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
X rays
Operating rooms
Imaging techniques
x rays
Mechatronics

{L}-{2}-stability criterion for systems with decentralized asynchronous controllers

Thomas, J., Hetel, L., Fiter, C., van de Wouw, N. & Richard, J. P., 18 Jan 2019, 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2018. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 6638-6643 6 p. 8619094

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Stability criteria
Stability Criteria
Decentralized
Actuator
Actuators

4-port model (FSI) transfer matrix extraction from FEM

Rodrigues, I. F., Arteaga, I. L. & Nakiboglu, G., 1 Jan 2019, Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019. Canadian Acoustical Association

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

state vectors
fluids
interactions
acoustics
outlets

Ab-initio study of doped salt hydrates crystal stabilities for thermochemical heat storage

Heijmans, K., Tranca, I., Gaastra - Nedea, S. & Smeulders, D., Jun 2019, Eurotherm Seminar #112 Advances in Thermal Energy Storage. 10 p. E150

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Heat storage
Hydrates
Salts
Crystals
Hydrolysis

Adaptive pressure control applied to mechanically ventilated patients

Reinders, J., Hunnekens, B., Oomen, T. & van de Wouw, N., 2019, Book of abstracts 38th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control. Patrinos, P., Markovsky, I., Michiels, W., Swevers, J. & Waldherr, S. (eds.). Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, p. 134 1 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

Open Access
File
1 Citation (Scopus)

A data rate constrained observer for discrete nonlinear systems

Voortman, Q., Pogromsky, A. Y., Matveev, A. S. & Nijmeijer, H., 18 Jan 2019, 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2018. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 3355-3360 6 p. 8619714

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Discrete Systems
Nonlinear systems
Observer
Nonlinear Systems
Communication

A decentralized consistent policy for event-triggered control over a shared contention: based network

Balaghi, M. H. I., Antunes, D. J., Mamduhi, M. H. & Hirche, S., 18 Jan 2019, 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2018. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 1719-1724 6 p. 8619584

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Contention
Decentralized
Linear Systems
Linear systems
Decentralized Control

A hybrid genetic algorithm for the k-bounded semi-online bin covering problem in batching machines

Hundscheid, B. H. H., Peeters, K., Adan, J., Martagan, T. G. & Adan, I. J. B. F., 2019, (Accepted/In press) WSC 2019- 2019 Winter Simulation Conference. Mustafee, N., Bae, K-HG., Lazarova-Molnar, S., Rabe, M., Szabo, C., Haas, P. & Son, Y-J. (eds.).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Bins
Genetic algorithms
Poultry
Computational complexity
Processing
4 Downloads (Pure)

An extended model order reduction technique for linear delay systems

Naderilordejani, S., Besselink, B. & van de Wouw, N., 2019, (Accepted/In press) 58th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC 2019).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Application of an adjusted neurophysiological (foot) skin blood flow model to a real life case study

Veselá, S., Kingma, B. & Frijns, A., 7 Jul 2019, The 18th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics ICEE2019. Gerrett, N. M., Daanen, H. A. M. & Teunissen, L. P. J. (eds.). Amsterdam, p. 139

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

3 Downloads (Pure)

A shrinking horizon approach to eco-driving for electric city buses: implementation and experimental results

Flores Paredes, J. C., Padilla Cazar, G. P. & Donkers, M. C. F., 2019, IFAC International Symposium on Advances on Automotive Control. Amsterdam: Elsevier, p. 556-561 6 p. (IFAC Papers Online; vol. 52, no. 5).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Energy utilization

A stochastic model predictive control approach for driver-aided intersection crossing with uncertain driver time delay

Katriniok, A., Kojchev, S., Lefeber, E. & Nijmeijer, H., 1 Jun 2019, 2019 18th European Control Conference, ECC 2019. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 243-249 7 p. 8795667

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

approach control
Model predictive control
Model Predictive Control
Stochastic models
intersections
1 Downloads (Pure)

Beyond quantization in iterative learning control: exploiting time-varying time-stamps

Strijbosch, N. & Oomen, T., 1 Jul 2019, 2019 American Control Conference, ACC 2019. PIscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 2984-2989 6 p. 8815329

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Stamping
Sampling
Control systems

Beyond time-domain iterative learning control

Strijbosch, N. & Oomen, T. A. E., 19 Mar 2019, 38th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control. p. 53 1 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

15 Downloads (Pure)

Collaborative learning for classification and prediction of building energy flexibility

Kumar, A., Mocanu, E., Babar, M. & Nguyen, P., 2019, (Accepted/In press) IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe. IEEE Press, 5 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

File
Decision trees
Support vector machines
Energy utilization
Neural networks
Uncertainty

Combustion of metal fuel in a low-swirl burner

Krens, J. J. J., Ruis, B. G. J., de Goey, P., van Oijen, J. & Schiemann, M., 2019, (Accepted/In press) Combustion of metal fuel in a low-swirl burner.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

1 Downloads (Pure)

Commutation angle iterative learning control: enhancing piezo-stepper actuator waveforms

Strijbosch, N., Tacx, P. J. M. M., Verschueren, E. & Oomen, T. A. E., 4 Sep 2019, Joint Conference 8th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems (MECHATRONICS 2019), and 11th IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems (NOLCOS 2019). p. 1451-1456 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

23 Downloads (Pure)

Comparative study of the evaporation coefficient predicting methods using molecular dynamics simulations

Wolf, M., Frijns, A., Gaastra - Nedea, S. & Enright, R., 24 Oct 2019, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Thermal Effects in Gas flows In Microscale. Brandner, J. & Baldas, L. (eds.). Karlsruhe, p. 1-10 10 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
evaporation
molecular dynamics
coefficients
simulation
condensation
16 Downloads (Pure)

Computational effort of BDD-based supervisor synthesis of extended finite automata

Thuijsman, S., Hendriks, D., Theunissen, R. J. M., Reniers, M. & Schiffelers, R., Aug 2019, 2019 IEEE 15th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, CASE 2019. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 486-493 8 p. 8843327

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Binary decision diagrams
Supervisory personnel
Finite automata
Clocks
Experiments
2 Downloads (Pure)

Consistent transient thermomechanical process modeling for additive manufacturing

Knippenberg, J., Remmers, J. J. C., Etman, L. F. P. P. & Geers, M. G. D., 11 Sep 2019, Proceedings of the II International Conference on Simulation for Additive Manufacturing SIM-AM 2019.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

Open Access
File
1 Downloads (Pure)

Control allocation for a high-precision linear transport system

Beerens, R., Thissen, S. C. N., van der Maas, A., Pancras, W. C. M., Gommans, T. M. P., van de Wouw, N. & Heemels, W. P. M. H., 18 Jan 2019, 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2018. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 1657-1662 6 p. 8618867

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Motion Tracking
Hardware Design
Linear motors
Permanent Magnet
Synchronous motors

Cooperative automated driving: from platooning to maneuvering

Ploeg, J. & de Haan, R., 1 Jan 2019, VEHITS 2019 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems. Gusikhin, O. & Helfert, M. (eds.). Setúbal: SCITEPRESS-Science and Technology Publications, Lda., p. 5-10 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
traffic
control system
Control systems
scenario
Automation
5 Downloads (Pure)

Coordinated air-fuel path control in a diesel-E85 RCCI engine

Willems, F., Kupper, F., Ramesh, S., Indrajuana, A. & Doosje, E., 2 Apr 2019, SAE World Congress Experience (WCX 2019). Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 11 p. 2019-01-1175. (SAE Technical Paper; vol. 2019-01-1175).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Ignition
Engine cylinders
Engines
Controllers
Air

Data-driven LPV synthesis: the FIR controller case

Bloemers, T., Tóth, R. & Oomen, T., 2019, 38th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control. Patrinos, P., Markovsky, I., Michiels, W., Swevers, J. & Waldherr, S. (eds.). p. 111 1 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

Impulse response
Controllers
FIR filters
Frequency response
Identification (control systems)

Deducing causes for the absence of states in supervised systems

Swartjes, L., Reniers, M. A. & Fokkink, W. J., 1 Apr 2019, 2019 6th International Conference on Control, Decision and Information Technologies, CoDIT 2019. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 144-149 6 p. 8820346

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Synthesis
Supervisory personnel
Feedback
Deduction
Supervisors
1 Downloads (Pure)

Delay complementarity modeling for dynamic analysis of directional drilling

Shakib, M. F., Detournay, E. & van de Wouw, N., 1 Jul 2019, 2019 American Control Conference, ACC 2019. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 5209-5214 6 p. 8814628

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Directional drilling
Boreholes
Dynamic analysis

Demonstrator for nano-Precision multi-Agent MagLev positioning platform for high throughput metrology

Kramer, L., van den Dool, T. & Witvoet, G., 2019, Joint Conference 8th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems (MECHATRONICS 2019), and 11th IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems (NOLCOS 2019) .

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

2 Downloads (Pure)

Development of a product platform for ship locks using DSM methods

Knippenberg, S. C. M., Etman, L. F. P. P., Rooda, J. E. K., Houwing, E. J. & Vogel, J. A., Sep 2019, Proceedings of the 21st International Dependency and Structure Modeling (DSM) Conference. Stowe, H. M., Browning, T. R., Eppinger, S. D., Tran, J. & Montijo, P. (eds.). Glasgow: Design Society, p. 153-163 11 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
File
Ships
Water management
Mechanics

DSM-based analysis for the recognition of modeling errors in supervisory controller design

Goorden, M., van de Mortel-Fronczak, J., Etman, P. & Rooda, J., 1 Jan 2019, Proceedings of the 21st International Dependency and Structure Modeling Conference, DSM 2019. Stowe, H., Browning, T. R., Eppinger, S. D., Tran, J. & Montijo, P. (eds.). Glasgow: Design Society, p. 121-129 9 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Controllers
Formal methods
Systems engineering

Effect of progress variable definition on the mass burning rate of premixed laminar flames in flamelet generated manifold methods

Gupta, H., de Goey, P. & van Oijen, J., 2019, Proceedings of the European Combustion Meeting 2019.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

Experimental and numerical investigations of vibration due to flow through an orifice

Kottapalli, S., Smeulders, D. & Nakiboglu, G., 2019, Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019. Canadian Acoustical Association

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

orifices
large eddy simulation
orifice flow
vibration
energy distribution

Exploiting directionality in Optimal Experiment Design for Multivariable Systems

Dirkx, N., van de Wijdeven, J. & Oomen, T., 2019, 38th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control. Patrinos, P., Markovsky, I., Michiels, W., Swevers, J. & Waldherr, S. (eds.). p. 65 1 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

Open Access
File

Extremum-seeking control for combined EGR fraction tracking and constrained pumping-loss minimization in Diesel engines

van der Weijst, R., van Keulen, T. & Willems, F., Jul 2019, 2019 American Control Conference, ACC 2019. p. 1623-1628 6 p. 8814660

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Exhaust gas recirculation
Diesel engines
Controllers
Actuators
Physics
1 Citation (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)

Feedforward motion control: from batch-to-batch learning to online parameter estimation

Mooren, N., Witvoet, G. & Oomen, T., 1 Jul 2019, 2019 American Control Conference, ACC 2019. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 947-952 6 p. 8814481

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Feedforward control
Motion control
Parameter estimation
Statistical methods
Hazards

Finite response and confluence of state-based supervisory controllers

Reijnen, F., Hofkamp, A., van de Mortel - Fronczak, A., Reniers, M. & Rooda, K., Aug 2019, 2019 IEEE 15th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, CASE 2019. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 509-516 8 p. 8843335

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Supervisory personnel
Controllers
Finite automata

First results from the large dynamic range atomic force microscope for overlay metrology

Witvoet, G., Peters, J., Kuiper, S., Keyvani, S. & Willekers, R., 26 Mar 2019, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXXIII. Ukraintsev, V. A. & Adan, O. (eds.). Bellingham: SPIE, 10 p. 109592E. (Proceedings of SPIE; vol. 10959).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Atomic Force Microscope
Dynamic Range
Metrology
Overlay
metrology
3 Downloads (Pure)

Frequency domain estimation of spatially varying parameters in heat and mass transport

Das, A., Weiland, S. & van Berkel, M., 29 Aug 2019, 2019 American Control Conference (ACC). Philadelphia, PA, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 600-605 6 p. 8814465

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Mass transfer
Sensors
Hot Temperature

From Batch-to-Batch to online learning control: experimental motion control case study

Mooren, N., Witvoet, G. & Oomen, T., 4 Sep 2019, Joint Conference 8th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems (MECHATRONICS 2019), and 11th IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems (NOLCOS 2019) Vienna, Austria. p. 1013-1018 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

4 Downloads (Pure)

Geometric optimization of variable flux reluctance machines for full electric vehicles

Zuurbier, M. M. J., Fahdzyana, C. A., Hofman, T., Bao, J. & Lomonova, E. A., 1 May 2019, 2019 14th International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies, EVER 2019. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 9 p. 8813611

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Electric vehicles
Fluxes
Machine design
Torque
Rotors

Hardware-in-the-loop set-up for supervisory controllers with an application: the prinses Marijke complex

Reijnen, F., Verbakel, J. J., van de Mortel - Fronczak, A. & Rooda, K., Aug 2019, (Accepted/In press) 2019 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA), 19-21 August, Hong Kong, China. p. 843-850 8 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Hardware
Controllers
Supervisory personnel
Communication

Hybrid integral reset control with application to a lens motion system

Gruntjens, K. G. J., Heertjes, M. F., van Loon, S. J. L. M., van de Wouw, N. & Heemels, W. P. M. H., 1 Jul 2019, 2019 American Control Conference, ACC 2019. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 2408-2413 6 p. 8815268

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Lenses
Controllers
Disturbance rejection
Three term control systems
Frequency response
1 Citation (Scopus)

Impact of thermal diffusion on lean near-limit H2-CH4-air flames

Hernandez Perez, F., Im, H., Zhou, Z., Shoshin, Y., van Oijen, J. & de Goey, P., 2019, AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. (AIAA)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Thermal diffusion
Gravitation
Air
Fuel burners
Methane

Integrated emission management strategy for optimal real-world performance

Mentink, P., Seykens, X., D'Aniello, F. & Willems, F., 6 Jun 2019, 2019 Symposium for Combustion Control.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

Integrating quantitative imaging and computational modeling to predict the spatiotemporal distribution of 186Re nanoliposomes for recurrent glioblastoma treatment

Woodall, R. T., Hormuth, D. A., Abdelmalik, M. R. A., Wu, C., Feng, X., Phillips, W. T., Bao, A., Hughes, T. J. R., Brenner, A. J. & Yankeelov, T. E., 1 Mar 2019, Medical Imaging 2019: Physics of Medical Imaging. Schmidt, T. G., Chen, G-H. & Bosmans, H. (eds.). Bellingham: SPIE, 13 p. 109483M. (Proceedings of SPIE; vol. 10948).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Glioblastoma
Single-Photon Emission-Computed Tomography
Imaging techniques
Single photon emission computed tomography
Convection
1 Downloads (Pure)

Intermittent sampling in iterative learning control: a monotonically-convergent gradient-descent approach with application to time stamping

Strijbosch, N. & Oomen, T. A. E., 2019, 2019 IEEE 58th Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 6542-6547 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Stamping
Sampling

Investigation of stencil/ screen printing of silver (Ag) electrodes for ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs)

Sideris, E. A., Augoulas, E. I., Homburg, E., van Maris, M. P. & de Lange, R. C., 13 Mar 2019, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) XXI. Bar-Cohen, Y., Anderson, I. A. & Johnson, N. L. (eds.). SPIE, 7 p. 1096607. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; vol. 10966).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Ionic Polymer-metal Composite
Screen printing
Silver
printing
Electrode

In-vitro investigation of the relationship between microvascular structure and ultrasound contrast agent dynamics

Chen, P., Turco, S., Sloun, R. J. G. V., Pollet, A., Toonder, J. D., Wijkstra, H. & Mischi, M., 2019, 2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS). Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 403-406 4 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Contrast Media
Prostatic Neoplasms
Prostate
Neoplasms
Microvessels
1 Citation (Scopus)

Iterative learning control in high-performance motion systems: from theory to implementation

Goubej, M., Meeusen, S., Mooren, N. & Oomen, T., 1 Sep 2019, Proceedings - 2019 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2019. Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, p. 851-856 6 p. 8868996

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Feedforward control
Motion control
Feedback control
Compensation and Redress

Learn from IoT: pedestrian detection and intention prediction for autonomous driving

Solmaz, G., Berz, E. L., Dolatabadi, M. F., Aytaç, S., Fürst, J., Cheng, B. & Ouden, J. D., 4 Oct 2019, SMAS 2019 - Proceedings of the 1st ACM Workshop on Emerging Smart Technologies and Infrastructures for Smart Mobility and Sustainability, co-located with MobiCom 2019. New York: ACM/IEEE, p. 27-32 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Mobile devices
Learning systems
Sensors
Railroad cars
Decision making