In applications involving electrons, membranes and electrodes are inherently combined and integrated. Research involves the design and development of membranes and electrodes for selective separation and energy applications. Much focus is on the design of porous electrodes with controlled porosity and the development of ion exchange membranes using electrospinning or solution casting. This is complemented with research on membrane-electrode assembly, flow cell design and component integration. Application areas are focused on energy generation and conversion (blue energy, fuel cells, electrolyzers) and energy storage (flow batteries) and also include selective separation of charged components for e.g. the desalination of saline water or the separation of proteins and amino acids.